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Browse padas

The most common format of Patanjali's yoga sutras divides the text into four sections. Each section is called a pada. These four padas each focus on a particular aspect of yoga practice.

For purposes of studying the yoga sutra texts, think of a pada as a chapter.

Yoga Sutra 2:1
Accepting pain as help for purification, study of spiritual books, and surrender to the Supreme Being constitute Yoga in practice.
Yoga Sutra 2:2
They help us minimize obstacles and attain samadhi.
Yoga Sutra 2:3
Ignorance, egoism, attachment, hatred, and clinging to bodily life are the five obstacles.
Yoga Sutra 2:4
Ignorance is the field for the others mentioned after it, whether they be dormant, feeble, intercepted, or sustained.
Yoga Sutra 2:5
Ignorance is regarding the impermanence as permanent, the impure as pure, the painful as pleasant, and the non-Self as the Self.
Yoga Sutra 2:6
Egoism is the identification, as it were, of the power of the Seer (Purusha) with that of the instrument of seeing [body-mind].
Yoga Sutra 2:7
Attachment is that which follows identification with pleasurable experiences.
Yoga Sutra 2:8
Aversion is that which follows identification with painful experiences.
Yoga Sutra 2:9
Clinging to life, flowing by its own potency [due to past experience], exists even in the wise.
Yoga Sutra 2:10
In subtle form, these obstacles can be destroyed by resolving them back into their primal cause [the ego].
Yoga Sutra 2:11
In the active state, they can be destroyed by meditation.
Yoga Sutra 2:12
The womb of karmas (actions and reactions) has its root in these obstacles, and the karmas bring experiences in the seen [present] or in the unseen [future] births.
Yoga Sutra 2:13
With the existence of the root, there will be fruits also: namely, the births of different species of life, their life spans and experiences.
Yoga Sutra 2:14
The karmas bear fruits of pleasure and pain caused by merits and demerit.
Yoga Sutra 2:15
To one of discrimination, everything is painful indeed, due to its consequences: the anxiety and fear over losing what is gained; the resulting impressions left in the mind to create renewed cravings; and the constant conflict among the three gunas, which control the mind.
Yoga Sutra 2:16
Pain that has not yet come is avoidable.
Yoga Sutra 2:17
The cause of that avoidable pain is the union of the Seer (Purusha) and the seen (Prakriti, or Nature).
Yoga Sutra 2:18
The seen is of the nature of the gunas: illumination, activity and inertia; and consists of the elements and sense organs, whose purpose is to provide both experiences and liberation to the Purusha.
Yoga Sutra 2:19
The stages of the gunas are specific, non-specific, defined and undefinable.
Yoga Sutra 2:20
The Seer is nothing but the power of seeing which, although pure, appears to see through the mind.
Yoga Sutra 2:21
The seen exists only for the sake of the Seer.
Yoga Sutra 2:22
Although destroyed for him who has attained liberation, it [the seen] still exists for others, being common to them.
Yoga Sutra 2:23
The union of Owner (Purusha) and owned (Prakriti) causes the recognition of the nature and powers of them both.
Yoga Sutra 2:24
The cause of this union is ignorance.
Yoga Sutra 2:25
Without this ignorance, no such union occurs. This is the independence of the Seer.
Yoga Sutra 2:26
Uninterrupted discriminative discernment is the method for its removal.
Yoga Sutra 2:27
One's wisdom in the final stage is sevenfold. [One experiences the end of 1) desire to know anything more; 2) desire to stay away from any thing; 3) desire to gain anything new; 4) desire to do anything; 5) sorrow; 6) fear; 7) delusion.]
Yoga Sutra 2:28
By the practice of the limbs of Yoga, the impurities dwindle away and there dawns the light of wisdom, leading to discriminative discernment
Yoga Sutra 2:29
The eight limbs of Yoga are:
1) yama (abstinence)
2) niyama (observance)
3) asana (posture)
4) pranayama (breath control)
5) pratyahara (sense withdrawal)
6) dharana (concentration)
7) dhyana (meditation)
8) samadhi (contemplation, absorption or superconscious state)
Yoga Sutra 2:30
Yama consists of non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-greed.
Yoga Sutra 2:31
These Great Vows are universal, not limited by class, place, time or circumstance.
Yoga Sutra 2:32
Niyama consists of purity, contentment, acceptance but not causing pain, study of spiritual books and worship of God [self-surrender].
Yoga Sutra 2:33
When disturbed by negative thoughts, opposite [positive] ones should be thought of. THis is pratipaksha bhavana.
Yoga Sutra 2:34
When negative thoughts or acts such as violence, etc. are caused to be done or even approved of, whether incited by greed, anger or infatuation, whether indulged in with mild, medium or extreme intensity, they are based on ignorance and bring certain pain. Reflecting thus is also pratipaksha bhavanam.
Yoga Sutra 2:35
In the presence of one firmly established in non-violence, all hostilities cease.
Yoga Sutra 2:36
To one established in truthfulness, actions and their results become subservient.
Yoga Sutra 2:37
To one established in non-stealing, all wealth comes.
Yoga Sutra 2:38
By one established in continence, vigor is gained.
Yoga Sutra 2:39
When non-greed is confirmed, a thorough illumination of the how and why of one's birth comes.
Yoga Sutra 2:40
By purification arises disgust for one's own body and for contact with other bodies.
Yoga Sutra 2:41
Moreover, one gains purity of sattva, cheerfulness of mind, one-pointedness, mastery over the senses, and fitness for Self-realization.
Yoga Sutra 2:42
By contentment, supreme joy is gained.
Yoga Sutra 2:43
By austerity, impurities of body and senses are destroyed and occult powers gained.
Yoga Sutra 2:44
By study of spiritual books comes communion with one's chosen deity.
Yoga Sutra 2:45
By total surrender to God, samadhi is attained.
Yoga Sutra 2:46
Asana is a steady, comfortable posture.
Yoga Sutra 2:47
By lessening the natural tendency for restlessness and by meditating on the infinite, posture is mastered.
Yoga Sutra 2:48
Thereafter, one is undisturbed by the dualities.
Yoga Sutra 2:49
That [firm posture] being acquired, the movements of inhalation and exhalation should be controlled. This is pranayama.
Yoga Sutra 2:50
The modifications of the life-breath are either external, internal or stationary. They are to be regulated by space, time and number and are either long or short.
Yoga Sutra 2:51
There is a fourth kind of pranayama that occurs during concentration on an internal or external object.
Yoga Sutra 2:52
As its result, the veil over the inner Light is destroyed.
Yoga Sutra 2:53
And the mind becomes fit for concentration.
Yoga Sutra 2:54
When the senses withdraw themselves from the objects and imitate, as it were, the nature of the mind-stuff, this is pratyahara.
Yoga Sutra 2:55
Then follows supreme mastery over the senses.
Yoga has endured and evolved as the result of devoted practice and study over generations. For those who continue in such tradition, this website exists to serve you. It was created with the intention of providing tools for people who are working on deepening their understanding of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. For more than a decade, has provided an online resource for the yoga sutra study.